Analisis Peluang Guessing pada Culture Fair Intelligence Test (Cfit) 3A dengan Metode IRT

  • Medianta Tarigan Universitas Pendidikan Indonesia
  • Fadillah Fadillah


Culture Fair Intelligence Test (CFIT) is a popular nonverbal intelligence measuring instrument used for psychological examination purposes. The figural form of a test with multiple choice as in CFIT can increase the chances of guessing behavior performed by the test subject. Guessing behavior will increase when subjects are encouraged to work on as many uncertain questions as possible whether they know the answer to the question. This behavior can affect the validity of test results in distinguishing quality and under-qualified test subjects. Until now, research related to CFIT psychometric properties is still limited. This study aims to evaluate the validity of CFIT by analyzing the guessing behavior using the Item Response Theory (IRT) method. The sample of this study was 1,955 participants and the results showed that based on IRT 3 PL modeling, the items in the CFIT 3A are still feasible to use. However, CFIT 3A contains items with an unacceptable guessing rate, 12% of the total number of items. The result of model fit test using Confirmatory Factor Analysis (CFA) method as an additional analysis shows that validity construct of CFIT 3A is good. It is expected that the results of the study can provide up-to-date information on the quality of CFIT 3A items and become a reference for other relevant research in the future.


Download data is not yet available.


Adedoyin, O. O., & Mokobi, T. (2013). Using Irt Psychometric Analysis in Examining the Quality of Junior Certificate Mathematics Multiple Choice Examination Test Items. International Journal of Asian Social Science, 3(4), 992–1011.
An, X., & Yung, Y. (2014). Item Response Theory : What It Is and How You Can Use the IRT Procedure to Apply It. SAS Institute Inc., 1–14.
Andriani, F., Hadi, C., & Paramita, P. P. (2017). Development and Validity of Fluid Intelligence Test Based on Cattle-Horn-Carrol Theory: A Pilot Project. INSAN Jurnal Psikologi Dan Kesehatan Mental, 1(2), 76.
Baker, F. B. (2001). Item Response Theory the Basics of Item Response Theory the (C. Boston & L. Rudner (eds.); Second Edi). ERIC Clearinghouse on Assessment and Evaluation.
Boyle, G. J., Stankov, L., Martin, N. G., Petrides, K. V., Eysenck, M. W., & Ortet, G. (2016). Hans J. Eysenck and Raymond B. Cattell on intelligence and personality. Personality and Individual Differences, 103(November 2017), 40–47.
Brown, R. E. (2016). Hebb and cattell: The genesis of the theory of fluid and crystallized intelligence. Frontiers in Human Neuroscience, 10(DEC2016).
Brown, T. A. (2015). Methodology in the social sciences.Confirmatory factor analysis for applied research (2nd ed.). The Guilford Press.
Bureau of Exceptional Education and Student Services. (2005). Nonverbal Tests of Intelligence. Florida Deparemtne of Education Technical Assisstance Paper, May, 1–12.
Byrne, B. M. (2013). Structural Equation Modeling With Lisrel, Prelis, and Simplis. Structural Equation Modeling With Lisrel, Prelis, and Simplis.
Cattell, R. B. (2009). Reprinted from The British Journal of Psychology (1946), 36, 159-174: Personality structure and measurement II: the determination and utility of trait modality. British Journal of Psychology (London, England : 1953), 100(Pt 1A), 233–248.
Cattell, Raymond B. (1940). The Journal of Educational Psychology. Annual Review of Psychology, XXXI(3), 161–179.
Cattell, Raymond B. (1951). Classical and Standard Score IQ Standardization of The I.P.A.T. Culture Free Intelligence Scale 2. 154–159.
Cattell, Raymond B. (1963). Theory of fluid and crystallized intelligence: A critical experiment. Journal of Educational Psychology, 54(1), 1–22.
Cattell, Raymond B. (1986). The Discovery of Fluid and Crystallized General Intelligence. In Raymond B. Cattell (Ed.), Intelligence: Its Structure, Grown and Action (pp. 87–120).
Chin, W. W. (1998). The Partial LEast Squares Approach to Structural Equation Modelling. In Modern Methods for Business Research (pp. 295–336).
Chiu, T. W., & Camilli, G. (2013). Comment on 3PL IRT Adjustment for Guessing. Applied Psychological Measurement, 37(1), 76–86.
Colom, R., & García-López, O. (2003). Secular gains in fluid intelligence: Evidence from the culture-fair intelligence test. Journal of Biosocial Science, 35(1), 33–39. (n.d.). Nonverbal Test.
Espinosa, M. P., & Gardeazabal, J. (2010). Optimal correction for guessing in multiple-choice tests. Journal of Mathematical Psychology, 54(5), 415–425.
Fischer, H. E., Boone, W. J., Fischer, H. E., & Boone, W. J. (2014). Quantitative Research Designs and Approaches Quantitative Research Designs and Approaches University of Duisburg-Essen , Essen , Germany Knut Neumann Leibniz-Institute for Science and Mathematics Education ( IPN ), Kiel , Germany. October 2015.
Ghozali, I., & Fuad, F. (2008). Structural Equation Modeling. Universitas Diponegoro.
Gregory, R. J. (2011). Psychological testing: History, principles, and applications (6th ed.) (6th ed.). Allyn & Bacon.
Gupta, S. (1991). Effects of time of day and personality on intelligence test scores. Personality and Individual Differences, 12(11), 1227–1231.
Ha, D. T. (2017). Applying Multidimensional Three-Parameter Logistic Model ( M3PL ) In Validating a Multiple-Choice Test. 7(2), 175–183.
Hair, Joseph F., J., Hult, G. T. M., Ringle, C., & Sarstedt, M. (2014). A Primer on Partial Least Squares Structural Equation Modelling {PLS-SEM}. SAGE Publication, Inc.
Hambleton, R. (1990). Item response theory: introduction and bibliography. Psicothema, 2(1), 97–107.
Hambleton, R. K., Swaminathan, H., & Rogers, H. J. (1991). Fundamentals of Item Response Theory Library.
Heine, J.-H., Gebhard, M., Schwab, S., Neumann, P., Gorges, J., & Wild, E. (2018). Testing psychometric properties of the CFT 1-R for students with special educational needs. Psychological Test and Assessment Modeling, 60(1), 3–28.
IPAT. (1973). Measuring intelligence with the Culture Fair Tests: Manual for Scales 2 and 3. Institute for Personality and Ability Testing.
Kumar, P., & Kumar, M. (2015). Intelligence and Teaching Aptitude Among Future Professional Teachers. International Journal of Social Science & Interdisciplinary Research, 4(November 2015), 68–72.
Kumara, A. (1989). Studi Validitas dan Reliabilitas Culture Fair Intellegence Test Skala 3 Sebagai Alat Ukur Inteligensi pada Para Mahasiswa. Universitas Gadjah Mada.
Larson, S. S. (1967). DigitalCommons @ USU A Comparison of Two Non-Verbal Intelligence Tests as Predictors of Academic Success of Navajo Students.
Marquart, D. I., & Bailey, L. L. (1955). An evaluation of the culture free test of intelligence. Journal of Genetic Psychology, 86(2), 353–358.
McCowan, R. J., & McCowan, S. C. (1999). Item Analysis for Criterion-Referenced Tests. Reading Teacher.
Mukherjee, P., & Samanta, T. K. (2016). An Assessment of IQ by Applying Cattell’s Culture Fair Test and A Comparative Study of IQ BEtween Boys and Girls (Urban Area of Burdwan District, West Bengal, India). 4(1), 64–75.
Naderi, H., Abdullah, R., Aizan, H. T., & Sharir, J. (2010). Intelligence and academic achievement: An investigation of gender differences. Life Science Journal, 7(1), 83–87.
Nenty, H. J., & Dinero, T. E. (1981). A Cross-Cultural Analysis of the Fairness of the Cattell Culture Fair Intelligence Test Using the Rasch Model. Applied Psychological Measurement, 5(3), 355–368.
Nurcahyo, F. A., Suprapto, M. H., Boeditjahjono, Hosea, J., & Putriadi, G. E. (2019). KORELASI ANTARA CFIT, TES PEMAHAMAN, DAN TES BERHITUNG PADA SISWA KELAS XII DI KEPULAUAN MENTAWAI. Journal of Chemical Information and Modeling, 53(9), 1689–1699.
Obinne, A. D. E. (2012). Using IRT in Determining Test Item Prone to Guessing. World Journal of Education, 2(1), 91–95.
Rahmawati, E. (2014). Evaluasi Karakteristik Psikometri Intelligenz Struktur Test (IST). Proceeding Seminar Nasional Psikometri, 270–282.
Ruiz, P. E. (2009). Measuring fluid intelligence on a ratio scale: Evidence from nonverbal classification problems and information entropy. Behavior Research Methods, 41(2), 439–445.
Sahadi, S., & Wibowo, M. A. (2013). Pengaruh Faktor Motivasi dan Kepercayaan Terhadap Kinerja Melalui Komitmen Pada Manajer Proyek Kontruksi Dengan Pendekatan Structural Equation Modeling. Jurnal Ilmu Dan Terapan Bidang Teknik Sipil, 19(2).
Saptoto, R. (2018). Pengaruh Adaptasi Waktu Administrasi yang disebabkan Penggunaan Lembar Jawaban Komputer terhadap Hasil CFIT 3 A dan 3 B. Jurnal Psikologi, 45(1), 52–65.
Sigal, M. J., & Mckelvie, S. J. (2012). Is Exposure to Visual Media Related to Cognitive Ability? Testing Neisser’s Hypothesis for the Flynn Effect. Journal of Articles in Support of the Null Hypothesis Journal of Articles in Support of the Null Hypothesis. JASNH, 9(1), 23–50.
Sijtsma, K., & Junker, B. W. (2006). Item Response Theory: Past Performance, Present Developments, and Future Expectations. Behaviormetrika, 33(1), 75–102.
Soekadji, S. (1999). Guessing : Instructed or Discouraged Penalized or Unpenalized ? 2, 93–105.
Suwartono, C., Amiseso, C. P., & Handoyo, R. T. (2017). Uji Reliabilitas dan Validitas Eksternal The Raven’s Standard Progressive Matrices. Humanitas, 14(1), 1.
Suwartono, C., Hidajat, L. L., Halim, M. S., Hendriks, M. P. H., & Kessels, R. P. C. (2016). External Validity of the Indonesian Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale – Fourth Edition (WAIS-IV-ID). ANIMA Indonesian Psychological Journal, 32(1), 16–28.
Tan, O., Okuyan, M., Albayrak, T., & Akgun, A. (2003). Sex Differences in Verbal and Spatial Ability Reconsidered in Relation to Body Size, Lung Volume, and Sex Hormones. Perceptual and Motor Skills, 1347–1360.
Wijanto, S. (2008). Struktural Equation Modelling dengan Lisrel 8.8. Graha Ilmu.
Wulan, R. (2010). Peranan Inteligensi, Penguasaan Kosakata, Sikap, dan Minat terhadap Kemampuan Membaca pada Anak. Jurnal Penelitian Dan Evaluasi Pendidikan, 14(2), 166–185.
Yang, F. M., & Kao, S. T. (2014). Item response theory for measurement validity. Shanghai Archives of Psychiatry, 26(3), 171–177.
Zanon, C., Hutz, C. S., Yoo, H., & Hambleton, R. K. (2016). An application of item response theory to psychological test development. Psicologia: Reflexao e Critica, 29(1).
How to Cite
TARIGAN, Medianta; FADILLAH, Fadillah. Analisis Peluang Guessing pada Culture Fair Intelligence Test (Cfit) 3A dengan Metode IRT. Jurnal Ilmu Perilaku, [S.l.], v. 5, n. 1, p. 92-100, july 2021. ISSN 2581-0421. Available at: <>. Date accessed: 25 oct. 2021. doi: